FROM "L'ECOLE DU COMMANDANT DU BATTERIE, I PARTIE, CANON 75", Of THE FRENCH ARTILLERY SCHOOL, OF DECEMBER, 1916, CORRECTED TO MARCH, 1917. The US Army adopted the French 75 mm field gun during World War I and used it extensively in battle. [9] At the Armistice there were 29 guns in service in Britain. The French 75 was designed as an anti-personnel weapon system for delivering large volumes of time-fused shrapnel shells on enemy troops advancing in the open. Their relatively flat trajectories extended all the way to the designated targets. It was commonly known as the French 75, simply the 75 and Soixante-Quinze (French for "seventy-five"). When the German 7.5 cm Pak 40 became available in sufficient numbers, most remaining Pak 97/38 pieces were returned to occupied France to reinforce the Atlantic Wall defenses or were supplied to Axis nations like Romania (PAK 97/38) and Hungary. The French Army had to wait until early 1917 to receive in numbers fast-firing heavy artillery equipped with hydraulic recoil brakes (e.g. [16] Manufacture of the French 75 by American industry began in the spring of 1918 and quickly built up to an accelerated pace. The French 75 introduced a new concept in artillery technology: rapid firing without realigning the gun after each shot. At the opening of World War I, in 1914, the French Army had about 4,000 of these field guns in service. 先日購入した、IBG 1:35 「75mm Field Gun Mle 1897 Polish Forces in the West」(IBG 35057)の簡単なレビュー。 前回も書いたように、キット名称の「Polish Forces in the West」は、イギリスで再編成された(亡命)ポーランド軍を指すらしい。 They were operated by field artillery and anti-tank units. It is the IBG 1/35 75mm M1897 field gun, aka the "French 75", and I'm doing as an Irish Army gun from the Emergency. Many others were used for training until 1942. 野砲(やほう、Field gun)は、火砲の一種。 定義は時代により異なるが、口径100mmクラス以下の軽カノン砲(加農)。 口径は基本的に75mm~77mmが標準であるが、イギリスのQF 18ポンド砲やQF 25ポンド砲、ソビエト連邦のM-60 107mm野砲のような大口径野砲も存在する。 The gun was officially adopted on 28 March 1898 under the name "Matériel de 75mm Mle 1897". In typical use, the French 75 could deliver fifteen rounds per minute on its target, either shrapnel or melinite high-explosive, up to about 8,500 m (5.3 mi) away. The excessive reliance on the 75 mm field gun, a doctrine developed by the General Staff during the pre-war years, cost hundreds of thousands of French lives that were lost during the unsuccessful Joffre offensives (Artois/Champagne) in 1915. The French 75: The 75mm M1897 field gun that revolutionized modern artillery (New Vanguard Book 288) - Kindle edition by Zaloga, Steven J., Rodríguez, Felipe. Updated 03 March 2012. The French Navy adopted the 75mm modèle 1897 for its coastal batteries[19] and warships[20]. 第二次世界大戦中の1940年には、エドガー・ブラント社が弾芯径58mmの装弾筒付徹甲弾を試作している。, 1890年、ドイツのクルップ社が駐退復座機を搭載した野砲の開発に着手したと考えたフランスは、自らも駐退復座機を備えた野砲の開発を開始した。1894年には試作品が完成したが、気圧式復座機構の気圧の維持が難しく、改良を必要とした。1896年に実用に耐える駐退復座機が完成し、それを取り付けた砲身と砲架が設計された。さらには野戦での運用を容易にするための照準器とニッケル鋼板の防盾も取り付けられ、1898年3月28日に制式採用された。, 第一次世界大戦直前の1913年には、大仰角を取れるように再設計された砲架に搭載されたモデルが開発され、これは4輪の自動車に搭載されて“Auto-canon de 75 modèle 1913”の名称で自走高射砲(高角砲)として使用された。, 第一次世界大戦勃発当時には、フランス陸軍の主力野砲となっていた。しかし、戦争が塹壕戦に移行すると、75mm砲弾では塹壕の構築物を破壊するには威力不足であったため、M1897は主に直接照準による機銃座の破壊や、榴散弾の曳火砲撃と毒ガス弾の投射による塹壕内の兵員殺傷に使われるようになった。また、サン・シャモン突撃戦車の主砲としても使用された。, 第一次大戦が終わったのちもM1897はフランス軍で長い間使用され続け、一部は開脚式砲架を備えた対戦車砲仕様に改修されたほか、その他の砲も木製車輪をゴムタイヤに取り換えている。1940年のナチス・ドイツのフランス侵攻でもドイツ軍相手に使用されたが、フランスの敗北によりヴィシー政権軍に残されたもの以外はすべてドイツ軍に接収された。, 第一次世界大戦参戦時にフランスから急遽1,900門を導入し、その後はアメリカ国内でライセンス生産が行われた。第一次大戦後も長く使われたが、野砲としては1940年から、より大口径・長射程・高汎用性をもつ自国製のM2A1 105mm榴弾砲に更新されて退役した。, M1897野砲をM3ハーフトラックの荷台に搭載したM3 75mm対戦車自走砲が開発され、アメリカ軍の初期の戦車駆逐車として北アフリカ戦線やイタリア戦線、太平洋戦線で使用されている。, 75mmM2/M3戦車砲はしばしばM1897ベースとされているが、実際には発展型ではなく弾薬の互換性があるT2/T3高射兼野砲やT26GMCにも車載されたT6高射砲といった試作砲の流れを汲んでいる。また、75mmM5/M6戦車砲はB-25G/Hに搭載された75mmM4/T13E1を車載用に改造したものである。, 独立後のポーランド・ソビエト戦争時にフランスから軍事援助の一環として供与され、ロシア帝国から分離独立時に接収したM1902 76mm野砲と共にソ連赤軍との戦闘で使用された。1939年のポーランド侵攻時にも1,374門を保有しており、ドイツ軍や赤軍に対して使用したが、多数がドイツに鹵獲され、ドイツ軍で運用された。, ドイツ軍は、ポーランド侵攻や西方電撃戦(オランダ侵攻・フランス侵攻)において、ポーランドやフランスが保有していた多数のM1897野砲を鹵獲した。ポーランドで鹵獲したものには7.5 cm F.K.97(p)、フランスで鹵獲したものには7.5 cm F.K.231(f)の制式名称を付けて運用した。, 1941年のバルバロッサ作戦によるソ連侵攻(独ソ戦)において、ドイツ軍の主力対戦車砲である3.7 cm PaK 36や5 cm PaK 38がソ連軍のT-34中戦車やKV-1重戦車に対してほとんど歯が立たず、7.5 cm PaK 40の数が揃うまでのピンチヒッターとしてM1897野砲に白羽の矢が立った。, 水平射角を確保するために5 cm PaK 38の砲架と組み合わせるなどの改良を加えた7.5 cm PaK 97/38に改修されたM1897は、成形炸薬弾を用いればT-34をあらゆる方角から撃破可能であり、KV-1に対しても側面や背面の装甲なら貫通可能なため、初期には重宝された。しかし、7.5 cm PaK 40や7.62 cm PaK 36(r)と比べて初速が低く徹甲弾の威力が低い上に砲弾の互換性も無かった。しかも、組み合わせた砲架は本来50mm砲のために用いられるものであったため、75mm砲の反動を受け止めるには自重が不足しており、据わりの悪さと弾速の低さで距離500m以上だと射撃精度が明らかに低下した。, このため、7.5 cm PaK 40の数が十分に揃うと東部戦線から引き上げられてフランスに移され、大西洋の壁に配備されたり、東欧の同盟軍へ引き渡された。, https://ja.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=M1897_75mm野砲&oldid=79751551. When the barrel recoiled, the piston was pulled back by the barrel's recoil and thus pushed the oil through a small orifice and into a second cylinder placed underneath. A truck-mounted anti-aircraft version of the French 75 was assembled by the automobile firm of De Dion-Bouton and adopted in 1913. The Canon de 75 modèle 1897 is still used in France as a saluting gun. Some French-built guns and the U.S. M1897 copy were used by the AEF in World War I, 1917-1918. Over 3,500 were modified with a muzzle brake and mounted on a 5 cm Pak 38 carriage, now named 7.5 cm Pak 97/38 they were used by the Wehrmacht in 1942 as an emergency weapon against the Soviet Union's T-34 and KV tanks. The total consumption of 75 mm shells at Verdun during the period February 21 to September 30, 1916, is documented by the public record at the Service Historique de l'Armée de Terre to have been in excess of 16 million rounds, or nearly 70% of all shells fired by French artillery during that battle. In December 1894, Deport was passed over for promotion, and resigned to join "Chatillon-Commentry", a private armaments firm. They had been designed for the specific purpose of inflicting maximum casualties on enemy troops stationing or advancing in the open. They were used in the defence of Britain, usually mounted on de Dion motor lorries using the French mounting which the British referred to as the "Breech Trunnion". [citation needed], Despite obsolescence brought on by new developments in artillery design, large numbers of 75s were still in use in 1939 (4,500 in the French army alone), and they eventually found their way into a number of unlikely places. Shell quality was restored by September 1915, but never to the full exacting standards of pre-war manufacture. The new barrel was made of steel alloy with chrome and nickel with excellent mechanical resistance to pressure which allowed, after modifying the firing brake, the recovery arch and the sighting devices an increase of the range from 8.5 km to 11.2 km and a rate of fire of 20 rounds/minute. Hydraulic fluid leakage was typical of this experimental phase of artillery development during the 1890s, as Haussner and Krupp had previously experienced. Colonel Sainte-Claire Deville corrected the problem, which was due to microfissures in the bases of the shells, due to shortcuts in manufacturing. The 75 mm tank gun has its origins in the famous French Canon de 75 modèle 1897 field gun of World War I fame, which was also adopted by the United States and used well into World War II as the 75 mm M1897 field gun. Updated 28 March 2013 -, Learn how and when to remove this template message, the -G and -H subtypes of the B-25 Mitchell, canon de 75 M(montagne) modèle 1919 Schneider, https://rft.forter.ro/biblioteca-virtuala/19326/tunurile-re%C5%9Fi%C5%A3ei, https://rft.forter.ro/biblioteca-virtuala/721/artileria-rom%C3%A2n%C4%83-%C3%AEn-date-%C5%9Fi-imagini, U.S. Army Veterinary Corps Historical Preservation Group - 75-MM GUN M1897, U.S. ARMY, "Investiture du Président : les coups de canons étaient... made in United States ! Accordingly, General Mathieu turned to Lt. Its relatively low velocity and a lack of modern armor-piercing ammunition limited its effectiveness as an anti-tank weapon. El cañón francés de 75 mm modelo 1897 fue un cañón que incorporó una serie de novedades que hicieron de él un cañón revolucionario que sirvió de referencia para muchos otros modelos posteriores. Field testing commenced in 1894 with excellent results save for leakage from the hydraulic system. Its firing rate could even reach close to 30 rounds per minute, albeit only for a very short time and with a highly experienced crew. Centre des archives de l'armement et du personnel civil 578 1F3 477, on Alienor.org -, Naval Norman Friedman Weapons of World War One, Seaforth Publishing, 2011, p. 227. The Soixante­quinze, France's legendary 75mm Modele 1897, was the first modern field gun, pioneering several critical innovations in field artillery designs, including a fast action breech and a soft recoil system. [17] When the French Army discarded its 105 HM2 howitzers to replace them with MO-120-RT mortars,[18] only 155mm artillery pieces remained, for which no blank cartridges were available. There were 480 American 75 mm field gun batteries (over 1,900 guns) on the battlefields of France in November 1918. The 75mm M2 and M3 tank guns of the M3 Lee and M4 Sherman Medium tanks, the 75mm M6 tank gun of the M24 Chaffee light tank and the 75mm gun of the -G and -H subtypes of the B-25 Mitchell bomber all used the same ammunition as the M1897. 31 March 1941, List and pictures of World War I surviving 75 mm Mle 1897 guns, Photos of a reproduction or restored US M1918 limber for the 75 mm gun M1897 with all accoutrements, Mortier de 220 modèle 1915/1916 Schneider, Canon Court de 105 M modele 1909 Schneider, Obusier de 200 "Pérou" sur affût-truck TAZ Schneider, Mortier de 293 Danois sur affut-truck modèle 1914, Canon de 220mm L Mle1917 Schneider (FAHM), Mortier 280 mm TR de Schneider sur affût-chenilles St Chamond, Mortier 280 mm TR de Schneider-St Chamond, Canon Court de 105 M modèle 1919 Schneider, Mitrailleuse Gatling modèle APX 1895 (1895), 8 mm Lebel smokeless powder cartridge (1886), Du Temple high-circulation steam engine (1876), Camion équipé d'un système d'artillerie CAESAR (2008), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Canon_de_75_modèle_1897&oldid=993415845, World War I artillery of the United States, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from March 2015, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2007, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2012, Articles with Polish-language sources (pl), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 1898–present (still used as a saluting gun). [citation needed] In the case of Verdun, over 1,000 French 75s (250 batteries) were constantly in action, night and day, on the battlefield during a period of nearly nine months. Britain also purchased a number of the standard 75 mm guns and adapted them for AA use using a Coventry Ordnance Worksmounting, the "Centre Trunnion". The total production of 75 mm shells during World War I exceeded 200 million rounds, mostly by private industry. 15-30 rpm burst (dependent on crew training and fatigue) 75-mm Gun. French 75 mm field gun Mle 1897, designated in Poland as 75 mm armata wz. During his service with the American Expeditionary Forces, Captain (and future U.S. President) Harry S. Truman commanded a battery of French 75s. Field Gun, 75mm M1897 This artillery piece was the U.S. Army adaptation of the "75 modèle 1897" or "French 75". Enlisted men from the countryside took care of the Marne in August–September 1914 and Verdun. 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