Epub 2020 Mar 7. Using cardiopulmonary bypass and having your blood pumped in a non-pulsatile fashion during CABG is a perverse physiological state which results in a series of post-operative issues. 2009 Jul;88(1 Suppl):S43-62. However, chronic, persistent post-CABG effusions have been reported. Elena A. Ashikhmina, M., Schaff, MD, H. V., Sinak, MD, L. J., Dearani, MD, J. The Mayo Clinic did a study where they searched their patient database for the records of patients aged 18 years or older who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, from 1993 through 2005. Critical patients should be evaluated in the resuscitation bay, and consultation with the primary surgical team is needed, which improves patient outcomes. This narrative review provides an evidence-based summary of the current data for the emergency medicine evaluation and management of post-CABG surgery complications. Possible risks associated with coronary artery bypass graft surgery include, but are not limited to, the following: Bleeding during or after the surgery Blood clots that can cause heart attack, stroke, or lung problems Infection at the incision site 10 NECESSARY FACTS YOU NEED TO KNOW WHEN REVIEWING A CHEST PAIN CASE, Stroke, myocardial infarction, or even death. Risk factors for perioperative mortality and morbidity after CABG surgery can be divided into three categories: patient characteristics, clinician characteristics, and postoperative factors. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. There exist other complications that are much less common in CABG patients. Your sternum is going to be sore and tender, so be careful when lifting your arms to shoulder height and above. CABG Post-op Complications that Seem Scary but Aren’t Shutterstock/virgo1957 All sorts of things may develop immediately following this major procedure, making visitors very worried. Risks and possible complications may occur, and even death. The wounds in your chest and arm or leg (depending on where the grafted blood vessels were removed) can become infected after a coronary artery bypass graft. A low ef, below 30 or 35 per cent has a higher risk for any surgery including cardiac surgery. The cause of these persistent effusions is unknown, and the histology of the pleural changes has seldom been reported. coronary artery spasm, coronary embolism, anemia, arrhythmias, hypertension, or hypotensionType 3 : … Coronary artery bypass graft markers: history, usage, and effects. The incidences of pneumonia and ARF after CABG were higher in the COPD group. The literature differs on the prevalence of complications post coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). These changes are more likely to occur in people who are older, who have high blood pressure or lung disease, or who drink excessive amounts of alcohol. However, some patients may develop fluid buildup around the heart that requires treatment. The most frequent complication in our study was nonhealing wounds or ulcers (13 patients) and wound necrosis (8 patients). Most of the CABG patients are hospitalized so it is the duty of health care providers to give best management of CABG related complications and it includes coagulopathy, systemic inflammatory response and perfusion to brain, kidney and liver. Introduction. Epub 2018 Oct 22. POCD is a CABG has been proven to be safe and effective, but like all surgeries, it may result in serious complications: Blood clots that can increase your chances of stroke, heart attack, or lung problems Bleeding during or after the surgery Wound infection and bleeding Generally, CABG follows this process: You will be asked to remove any jewelry or other objects that may interfere with the procedure. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons 2008 cardiac surgery risk models: part 3--valve plus coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. Pulse pressure was not … Coronary artery bypass surgery post-operative care and complications On the Web Most recent articles. Memory loss and other changes, such as problems concentrating or thinking clearly, may occur in some people. Now he has breathing problem & can't walk himself without support.His chest sounds like some liquid is passing through and 'khat,khat' sound is notable from outside.He has cough.Some liquid is also coming out from the wound. Retrieved October 28, 2013, from National Heart Lung and Blood Institute: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health//dci/Diseases/cabg/cabg_all.html. ; However, the use of BIMA is associated with increased risk of infection and should be considered only when the benefit outweighs … Heart bypass surgery, or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, is used to improve blood flow to your heart. Postoperative incidence has lessened with the advent of prophylactic antibiotics but multi-resistant organisms present an increasing challenge. Heart bypass surgery is a complicated procedure that involves a significant amount of preparation and recovery time. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is the most widely used treatment modality for patients with ischemic heart disease worldwide. These complications resulted in 62 additional surgical procedures performed. The etiology of these persistent effusions remains unknown. Some of these less common post surgery problems include heart attack, stroke, lung problems (like pneumonia), kidney dysfunction and abnormal scar formation. 2019 Feb;37(2):329-337. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2018.10.032. Epub 2011 Nov 11. Postoperatively, a number of complications can occur after CABG and direct the medical management and nursing care of the patient. There are also additional risks associated specifically with CABG. < Terug naar Indicatorensets Definitie CABG: elke patiënt die voor de eerste keer een geïsoleerde CABG ondergaat binnen de vastgestelde rapportageperiode, zonder gelijktijdige klep- of ritmechirurgie of andere vormen van chirurgie zoals bijvoorbeeld aortabifurcatieprothese, carotischirurgie, ventrikelaneurysma of longoperatie. Respiratory complications occur after major surgery, particularly after general anaesthesia and can include : Atelectasis (alveolar collapse): This is caused when airways become obstructed, usually by bronchial secretions. Question 13.1 from the first paper of 2009 asks the candidate to come up with reasons for why their post-op CABG patient is bleeding to death, and to come up with a management strategy. Pain. Occasionally, someone must undergo emergency heart bypass surgery, but … powerpoint slides. In general, the risk of complications is higher if CABG is done in an emergency situation (for example, during a heart attack), if you're older than 70, or if you have a history of smoking. CARDIAC COMPLICATIONS Perioperative MI — The diagnosis of perioperative myocardial infarction (MI) may be difficult to make after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), since cardiac enzyme elevations occur as a result of the surgical procedure and since electrocardiographic (ECG) changes may reflect postoperative pericardial inflammation. METHODS: Perioperative characteristics and 30-day complications were gathered from all patients undergoing CABG (n = 252) at the SJ-VAMC (2001-2003). These side effects often improve several months after surgery. Dag 5 postoperatief: weer standaard controles: ECG, X ... - Ontslaggesprek met arts of verpleegkundig specialist. Patient care protocols, especially those concerning echocardiographic surveillance, should take these findings into consideration (Elena A. Ashikhmina, et al., 2010), Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting. Physicians must rapidly diagnose these conditions while evaluating for other diseases. Early surgical consultation is imperative, as is optimizing the patient's hemodynamics, including preload, heart rate, cardiac rhythm, contractility, and afterload. NURSE INTUBATES PATIENT AND IS BARRED FROM HOSPITAL….WHAT IF??? Atelectasis, pleural effusion, atelectasis with pleural effusion, and pneumonia were the most frequent PPCs post CABG surgery. Pericardial effusion was defined as fluid in the  pericardial space that manifested with symptoms, required specific treatment, was large enough to prompt consideration of drainage, or required lengthened in-hospital stay for observation. Epub 2013 Sep 10. Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly known as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by a high blood sugar level over a prolonged period of time. Am J Emerg Med. CABG is one treatment for CHD. Ann Thorac Surg. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2009.05.055. Bedford introduced the concept of POCD in 1955. Pericardial effusions may delay recovery and can be life threatening when tamponade leads to hemodynamic compromise. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. Some of these less common post surgery problems include heart attack, stroke, lung problems (like pneumonia), kidney dysfunction and abnormal scar formation. From this group they identified the study cohort, which consisted of patients in whom pericardial effusion developed within 30 postoperative days. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Patients undergoing PCI had increased unadjusted (5.1% vs. 2.7%; p . Those who died on the day of operation were excluded. 2012 Apr;41(4):755-62. doi: 10.1093/ejcts/ezr039. Overhead lifting after coronary artery bypass surgery can be a challenge. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated preoperative pulse pressure was associated with a modest increase in postoperative troponin-T concentrations, but not postoperative cardiovascular complications or in-hospital mortality in patients having CABG. ; In the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, helpful tests include EKG, stress test, echocardiography, and coronary angiography. A number of complications are associated with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), both in the short term and in the long term; they are associated … These complications include hemodynamic instability, dysrhythmias, altered thermoregulation, postoperative bleeding and cardiac tamponade, oxygenation and ventilation abnormalities, neurologic and renal dysfunction, and infection. Using cardiopulmonary bypass and having your blood pumped in a non-pulsatile fashion during CABG is a perverse physiological state which results in a series of post-operative issues. (n.d.). Also, 215 study patients (66%) had an enlarged cardiac silhouette. Shahian DM, O'Brien SM, Filardo G, Ferraris VA, Haan CK, Rich JB, Normand SL, DeLong ER, Shewan CM, Dokholyan RS, Peterson ED, Edwards FH, Anderson RP; Society of Thoracic Surgeons Quality Measurement Task Force. Infection []. Without these drains, blood could remain in the aortic cavity and cause problems with the heart rhythm. The reported incidence of postoperative pericardial effusions ranges between 1% and 77%, depending on study definitions and designs. Therefore, cases of effusion that did not meet the above criteria or were not detected. This is due to inflammation involving the lung and heart sac. BACKGROUND: Preoperative risk factors for complications post-CABG have been identified; however limited data is available regarding the value of these predictors in the Puerto Rican Population. Ze treden vooral direct na de operatie op als je nog in het ziekenhuis lig. Most cases are mild and may go unnoticed. During CABG, a healthy artery or vein from the body is connected, or grafted, to the blocked coronary artery. You can place dishes in the cupboard or brush your teeth, but try to minimise how long your arms are in the elevated position. In the current study, the incidence of observed pericardial effusion was relatively low (1.5%), probably because it was defined as fluid in the pericardial space that required intervention, lengthened in-hospital stay, or was large enough to prompt consideration of drainage. Infectious complications are the main causes of postoperative morbidity in abdominal surgery. 2013 Dec;17(6):1000-8. doi: 10.1093/icvts/ivt351. Of all surgical procedures requiring a sternotomy, coronary bypass surgery is certainly the most common one.During coronary bypass surgery, a median sternotomy is performed by making a vertical incision in the middle of the sternum (breastbone), in order to open the chest cavity and access coronary arteries. These complications include: Wound infection and bleeding; Reactions to anesthesia; Fever; Pain; Stroke, myocardial infarction, or even death; Some patients develop a fever associated with chest pain, irritability, and decreased appetite. These complications include: Wound infection and bleeding. ; Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery reestablishes sufficient blood flow to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle. For healthcare professionals, administering secondary preventative therapies is a fundamental responsibility following CABG. Ongoing trials at clinical trials.gov. Changed diet and went to cardiac rehab. Although the majority resolves spontaneously, post-CABG effusions can persist. Complicaties na hartchirurgie CARVASZ congres 15-11-2013 “Cardio ... Dag 3 post OK overgeplaatst worden. The recommendation was upgraded from class Ila in the 2011 guidelines to class I in the 2014 guidelines. It affects around three in 10 people after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), four in 10 people after valve surgeries, and about 5 in 10 people after combined surgery. Procedure may vary depending on your condition and your doctor's practices. Something similar occurs in Question 13 from the first paper of 2012. Your risk also is higher if you have other diseases or conditions, such as diabetes, kidney … ANATOMY OF A CHEST PAIN CASE: WHAT ATTORNEYS MUST KNOW TO NAVIGATE THE MEDICINE – PART IV, ANATOMY OF A CHEST PAIN CASE: WHAT ATTORNEYS MUST KNOW TO NAVIGATE THE MEDICINE, PART III. These will be removed as you get better. NIH Introduction: The major complications include bleeding that may require a return to the operating room, heart attack, heart failure, arrhythmia, stroke, changes in cognitive function, pulmonary problems, wound infection, renal failure, and death. Some patients develop a fever associated with chest pain, irritability, and decreased appetite. Epub 2012 Jan 13. NICE guidance. Infection can also affect your lungs or the inside of the chest after having a coronary artery bypass graft. Here is a great site that has a lot of relevant information about LNCs. Discussion: While there has been a recent decline in all cardiac revascularization procedures, there remains over 200,000 CABG surgeries performed in the United States annually, with up to 14% of these patients presenting to the ED within 30 days of discharge with post-operative complications. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Coronary artery disease develops because of hardening of the arteries (arteriosclerosis) that supply blood to the heart muscle. Annals of Thoracic Surgery, pp. 0.001) and adjusted mortality, stroke, acute kidney injury, and infectious complications. What are the most common post-CABG complications? 112-118. US National guidelines clearinghouse.  |  having 3 or more vessels grafted – the more complex the operation, the greater the chance that complications will occur being obese – if you're obese, the surgeon will have to make a deeper cut to gain access to your heart, which has a higher risk of becoming infected Pleural effusion: More than 85% of patients develop pleural effusions after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). An ejection fraction of 55 - 60 per cent is normal. Doctors give unbiased, helpful information on indications, contra-indications, benefits, and complications: Dr. Malkin on post cabg complications: Ef or ejection fraction is the amount of blood ejected with each beat of the heart. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Most cited articles. ; However, the use of BIMA is associated with increased risk of infection and should be considered only when the benefit outweighs … During this time, you may be attached to various tubes, drips and drains that provide you with fluids, and allow blood and urine to drain away. In retrospective studies of clinically important pericardial effusions the reported incidence is 1% to 2%. Perioperative MI — The diagnosis of perioperative myocardial infarction (MI) may be difficult to make after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), since cardiac enzyme elevations occur as a result of the surgical procedure and since electrocardiographic (ECG) changes may reflect postoperative pericardial inflammation. High mean platelet volume to platelet count ratio as a predictor on poor outcomes after CABG. This reaction usually is mild. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Also know that complications can be exacerbated by certain risk factors, only some of which are controllable. Post-CABG complications can affect many different systems other than the cardiovascular system, as patients are at risk for common post-surgical complications, including respiratory failure, stroke, UTI, renal failure, coagulopathy, limb ischemia, wound dehiscence, pleural eff… This isn’t a dangerous complication and it’s not a sign of any problem with your operation. The ACC/AHA recommends CABG over PCI for improved survival in patients with comorbid DM and multivessel CAD, particularly with use of LIMA GRAFT (CLASS I). All other patients presumably did not have pericardial effusion after the operation and formed the first Control group (control 1). Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting are at risk for the same complications as any surgery. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) requires a stay in a hospital. I personally know, Alvin and Associates Legal Nurse Consultants, COMPLICATIONS POST CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS SURGERY, http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health//dci/Diseases/cabg/cabg_all.html. Several groups of patients are at increased risk for postoperative effusions.  |  These can either go to the brain or block the flow of blood to the brain which may cause a stroke or other problems such as acute kidney injury. In 140 patients (43%) pericardial effusion was initially small, which progressed further to moderate or large in 81 patients (25%). Without these drains, blood could remain in the aortic cavity and cause problems with the heart rhythm. 2020 May;68(5):453-458. doi: 10.1007/s11748-020-01325-2. MEDICAL MALPRACTICE: IS IT POSSIBLE FOR THIS TO BE CAUSED BY SYSTEM FAILURES AND HOW DOES ONE REVIEW THIS TYPE OF CASE? I had cabg x2 with no complications in January 2017 so I just passed the 2 year mark. The higher incidences are reported from smaller prospective studies with frequent echocardiographic examinations; most of these effusions were clinically insignificant. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a surgery is used to stop blood flow to the heart or brain. Is there a role for HbA1c in predicting mortality and morbidity outcomes after coronary artery bypass graft surgery? Cellulitis occurred in 6 patients and epidermolysis was noted in 1 patient. Results: PPCs occurred in 99.4% of this CABG surgical cohort. Cardiac tamponade (1.5%) CABG graft ischaemia (4-5%) Vasoplegia; Neurological complications: However, POCD is difficult to diagnose, as there is still no international consensus. This review provides several guiding principles for management of acute complications. Physicians must rapidly diagnose these conditions while evaluating for other diseases. Emergency physicians will be faced with several postoperative complications, including sternal wound infections, pneumonia, thromboembolic phenomena, graft failure, atrial fibrillation, pulmonary hypertension, pericardial effusion, strokes, renal injury, gastrointestinal insults, and hemodynamic instability. Bypassoperatie / CABG Een bypassoperatie of een CABG (Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting) wordt uitgevoerd wanneer u een vernauwing in een van de kransslagaders (coronairen) heeft. Atrial fibrillation is a rapid or irregular heartbeat after having surgery. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. Pericardial  effusions  were  associated  with  pleural effusions in 179 cases (55%); 104 bilateral, 65 left-sided, and 10 right-sided pleural effusions were seen on chest radiography. Complication; Coronary artery bypass graft surgery; Deep space wound infection; Graft. Mogelijke complicaties zijn nabloedingen, koorts, ontsteking van de operatiewond en hartritmestoornissen. Na CABG gemiddeld 5 - 6 dagen postoperatief. Atelectasis (70%) Pleural effusion (~10%) ARDS (rare as hen's teeth) Pulmonary hypertension; Myocardial dysfunction. A surgeon uses blood vessels taken from another area of … Discover the definition of coronary artery bypass graft. Risks and Complications of Triple Bypass Surgery Patients who undergo triple bypass surgery need to be fully informed about all the possible risks connected to the surgical procedure. The life-expectancy for a person who has had CABG surgery depends on risk factors or any other preexisting conditions. (Angina is chest pain or discomfort.) There exist other complications that are much less common in CABG patients.  |  Age >65 years, diabetes, and ASA classification >3 were found to be related to the presence of atelectasis. Postoperative MI is classified as type 5 MI (Table 1) (4). A., Suri, MD, R. M., Orszulak, MD, T. A., et al. Sex differences in outcomes following isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery in Australian patients: analysis of the Australasian Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons cardiac surgery database. Stroke, myocardial infarction, or even death. Na klepchirurgie gemiddeld 6 á 8 dagen postoperatief. Learn how coronary artery disease is diagnosed, treated, recovery time, risks and complications, and the long term results after CABG. Age >65 years, diabetes, and ASA classification >3 were found to be related to the presence of atelectasis. Symptoms often include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased appetite. Review articles. Conclusions: ( Lee et al, 2001) Sleep disturbances is another big postoperative complication The purpose of a 1996 Schafer et al study was to describe the nature and frequency of sleep pattern disturbances in patients post coronary artery bypass (CABG) surgery. Prolonged and excessive bleeding is another complication of triple bypass surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. If it occurs during the surgery patients are commonly administered transfusion. Your risk also is higher if you have other diseases or conditions, such as diabetes, kidney disease, lung disease, or peripheral arterial disease (Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting). There could be complications that arise during or after coronary artery bypass surgery, including: The bypass could not function properly, still not allowing proper blood flow to the heart. COMPLICATIONS: 1. Saxena A, Dinh D, Smith JA, Shardey G, Reid CM, Newcomb AE. Meestal zijn deze problemen goed te behandelen. FDA on Coronary artery bypass surgery post-operative care and complications & was two days in ventilation,and total 6 days in ICU after surgery. Atelectasis, pleural effusion, atelectasis with pleural effusion, and pneumonia were the most frequent PPCs post CABG surgery. Complications included gastric perforations, intra-abdominal bleeding, and pancreatitis . Keywords: The ACC/AHA recommends CABG over PCI for improved survival in patients with comorbid DM and multivessel CAD, particularly with use of LIMA GRAFT (CLASS I). 2012 Apr;143(4):936-44. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2011.12.018. These complications include: Some patients develop a fever associated with chest pain, irritability, and decreased appetite. Postoperative complications of CABG surgery can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Images. 1,2 Despite the increased emphasis given to the use of arterial grafts, the long saphenous continues to be the most commonly used conduit for CABG and remains the mainstay. You'll usually need to stay in hospital for around 7 days after having a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) so medical staff can closely monitor your recovery. My father had a CABG on 19th Sep.,2016. Post-CABG complications can affect many different systems other than the cardiovascular system, as patients are at risk for common post-surgical complications, including respiratory failure, stroke, UTI, renal failure, coagulopathy, limb ischemia, wound dehiscence, pleural eff… Door een extra bloedvat aan te leggen en een aansluiting te maken op het vernauwde bloedvat komt er weer genoeg bloed en zuurstof in de hartspier. I highly suggest it. Post-CABG PCI also was associated with increased length of stay and cost. Post-surgical bleeding is so common that doctors will typically leave two small drains in the chest that allow blood to be collected in a bag until the bleeding subsides. Pericardial Effusion After Cardiac Surgery: Risk Factors, Patient Profiles, and Contemporary Management. This, in turn, could affect the patient's blood pressure. USA.gov. These include: Angina Pain in the upper back Vomiting Upper stomach pain Headache Fatigue Toothache Today we will focus more closely on the risk of infection and bleeding into the pericardial sac (pericardial effusion). Table 1 - Clinical classification of types of myocardial Infarction Type 1 : Spontaneous myocardial infarction related to ischemia due to a primary coronary event such as plaque erosion and/or rupture, fissuring, or dissectionType 2 : Myocardial infarction secondary to ischemia due to either increased oxygen demand or decreased supply, e.g. One possible complication of coronary artery bypass surgery is bleeding at either the spot where the healthy vein was extracted from or bleeding where the artery was reattached. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. In addition, recent studies have suggested that new onset atrial fibrillation in the peri-operative period is also a risk factor for post-CABG stroke. CABG Associated Complications Complications after a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery may include bleeding during or after surgery, blood clots, and breathing problems. Despite many recent improvements in intraoperative management and postoperative care, late pericardial effusions remain an important cause of morbidity after cardiac surgery. Although uncommon, there are a number of complications that can occur after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Objective: Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery remains a high-risk procedure, and many patients require emergency department (ED) management for complications after surgery. (2010). ( Lee et al, 2001) Sleep disturbances is another big postoperative complication The purpose of a 1996 Schafer et al study was to describe the nature and frequency of sleep pattern disturbances in patients post coronary artery bypass (CABG) surgery. Early surgical consultation is imperative, as is optimizing the patient's hemodynamics, including preload, heart rate, cardiac rhythm, contractility, and afterload. Complications may be either immediate or long-termed. The literature differs on the prevalence of complications post coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). This, in turn, could affect the patient's blood pressure. If the blockage is severe, angina (an-JI-nuh or AN-juh-nuh), shortness of breath, and, in some cases, heart attack can occur. Reactions to anesthesia. What are the most common post-CABG complications? Fever. Understanding these complications and an approach to the management of hemodynamic instability is essential to optimizing patient care. Pericardial  effusion  was  commonly  visualized  by  echocardiography at the end of the first postoperative week (mean [SD], 9 [6] days; median, 7 days). This  incidence  was  1.5%  in 1993 through 1999 and 1.8% in 2000 through 2005. Reasons for CABG procedure are heart attacks, strokes, and blood clots. What is heart bypass surgery through coronary artery bypass graft, (CABG)? Post-Operative Complications. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Although the incidences of GI complications following CABG surgery have been reported to be between 1.6% and 2.3%, the mortality rates as a result of these complications are high: 35.7% to 38.5% , , . HHS In general, the risk of complications is higher if CABG is done in an emergency situation (for example, during a heart attack), if you’re older than 70, or if you have a history of smoking. The literature differs on the prevalence of complications post coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). Conclusions: Postoperative complications of CABG surgery can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Acute liver failure: A review for emergency physicians. NLM Epub 2019 Sep 12. CARDIAC COMPLICATIONS. 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